The Library of Iberian Resources Online
A History of Spain and Portugal
Volume One
Stanley G. Payne

 Chapter One : Ancient Hispania
 Chapter Two : Al-Andalus (The Amina Dictatorship 967/981-1008, 26;  Breakup of the Caliphate 1008-1031, 28; The Taifa Kingdoms, 29 ;Parallel between the Caliphate and the Later Spanish Empire, 30)
 Chapter Three :The Early Christian Principalities and the Expansion of Asturias-León (Origins of the Kingdom of Asturias, 32 ;Formation of the Pyrenean Counties, 34 ;The Basque Principality of Navarre, 35; Expansion of Asturias-León, 36; The Emergence of Castile, 38; Crown and Aristocracy, 39; The Peasantry, 41; Social Associationism, 44; Early Extension of Seigneurial Domain, 45; Castilian Frontier Society and Resettlement, 46 ;Immigration into the Hispanic Principalities, 47; Towns, 48; León During the Tenth Century, 49; The Autonomy of Castile, 50; The Expansion of Navarre, 51; Underlying Unity of the Hispano-Christian Principalities, 53)

 Chapter Four : Castile-León in the Era of the Great Reconquest ((Stages of the Hispanic Reconquest, 55 ; The New Power Balance and Renewal of Leonese-Castilian Imperialism, 56;  Resettlement of the Region between the Duero and Tajo: The Concejos of Castile and León, 59;  Prominence of the Medieval Hispanic Venturero, 60;  The Reconquest Checked: Rise of the Almoravid Empire, 61;  The Epic of the Cid, 63 ; The Succession Crisis and the Social Revolt of 1109-1117, 64; The Crusade and the Crusading Orders, 66; Institutional and Social Change in Twelfth-Century Castile and León, 68;  Rise of the Muslim Almohad Empire, 70;  The Apex of Hispano-Muslim Culture, 71; The Reign of Alfonso VIII (1158-1214), 72;  The Great Reconquest of San Fernando III (1217/1230-1252), 73;  The Mudejares of Castile, 73;  Castilian Repopulation and Resettlement in the Thirteenth Century, 74; The Triumph of Seigneurial Domain, 75; The Economy of Thirteenth-Century Castile, 76; The Castilian Sense of Wealth, 77; The Incorporation of Hispanic Jewry, 78; Cultural Achievements of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, 78; Codification of Fueros and Expansion of Royal Law, 79; The Political Failure of Alfonso el Sabio, 80; Origins of the Castilian Cortes, 81; Constitutional Status of the Basque Region, 83)

 Chapter Five : The Rise of Aragón-Catalonia (Evolution of the Catalan Counties, 85; Origins of the Kingdom of Aragón, 88; The Aragonese Succession Crisis and the Union of Aragón and Catalonia, 92; The Great Catalan Reconquest of Jaume the Conqueror, 95; Constitution and Society of Aragón in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries, 96; The Kingdom of Valencia, 99; The Balearic Islands, 100; The Economy of Medieval Catalonia, 102; Society and Institutions of Medieval Catalonia, 103; Medieval Catalan Culture, 106; Expansion of the Aragonese Mediterranean Empire, 109)

  Chapter Six : The Emergence of Portugal (Medieval Portuguese Society, 120; Portuguese Catholicism, 123; Maritime and Commerical Affairs, 125; The Sesmarias, 126;; The Monarchy in the Fourteenth Century, 127 The Succession Crisis of 1383-1385, 128; Joâo I (1384-1433), 129)

 Chapter Seven : Medieval Hispanic Catholicism

 Chapter Eight : Castile and Aragón in the Late Middle Ages (Preeminence of the Aristocracy in Castile, 141; Restoration of Royal Authority under Alfonso XI (1325-1350), 143; The Southern Frontier, 145; Nasrid Granada, 145; Pedro the Cruel (1350-1368) and the Great Castilian Civil War, 147; Structure of the Trastámara Monarchy, 148; Apogee and Decline of the Castilian Cortes, 149 Extension and Consolidation of Aristocratic Domain, 152; The Castilian Economy of the Late Middle Ages, 155; Foreign Involvement: Cas-
| tile in the Hundred Years' War; The Southern Frontier, 158; The Decline ofAragón-Catalonia, 159; Juan II and the Catalan Revolt of 1462-1472, 163; Comparison between Castile and Catalonia in the Fifteenth Century, 168 )

 Chapter Nine : The United Spanish Monarchy (The Ordering of Castile, 172; The Ordering of Aragón and Catalonia, 176; The Predominance of Castile in the United Monarchy, 178; The Sixteenth-Century Habsburg Monarchy, 178)

 Chapter Ten : The Expansion

 Chapter Eleven : The Apogee of Hispanic Catholicism (The Inquisition, 207; The Moriscos, 213; Expansion of Catholic  Learning, 215; Spanish Erasmianism, 216; Counter-Reformation Religious Policy in Spain, 216;Sixteenth-Century Spanish Thought, 220; The Struggle for Social Justice in the Colonies, 221; Spanish Religiosity in the Later Sixteenth Century, 222)

 Chapter Twelve : Sixteenth-Century Portugal (Restoration of Strong Central Authority under Joâo II (1477/1481-1495), 225; Manuel I the Fortunate (1495-1521), 225; Decline of the Portuguese Cortes, 227; Portuguese Humanism, 227; Religion, 228; The Thalassocracy, 232 ;Portugal under Joâo III (1521-1557), 238; The Portuguese in Morocco, 239; D. Sebastiâo (1557-1578) and  the Disaster of Alcázarquivir, 241; The Portuguese Succession Crisis and the Union of the Crowns, 242; Sebastianism, 244; The Continuity of Portuguese History under the Habsburg Crown, 245)

 Chapter Thirteen : The Spanish Empire 246 ( Administration of the Spanish Habsburg Empire, 254; The Reign of  Felipe II, 256; Imperial Affairs under Felipe III (1598-1621), 263; The Black Legend, 264)

 Chapter Fourteen : Spanish Society and Economics in the Imperial Age ( The Catalan Economy during the Imperial Age, 275; Expansion and  Decline of Sixteenth-Century Agriculture, 211; Growth and Decline of Castilian Commerce and Industry, 279; The Pnce Rise, 281; The Fiscal System, 282; Social Psychology, 285; Suppression of the Moriscos, 286; Conclusion, 288)
 Chapter Fifteen : The Seventeenth-Century Decline (The Economic Decline, 292; Spanish America and the Colonial Trade, 295; Spanish Society in the Seventeenth Century, 298; Religion and Culture, 303;; Government under Felipe HI (1598-1621), 306; Felipe IV (1621-1665) and the Leadership of Olivares, 308; Final Eclipse of the Castilian Cortes, 311; Spanish Imperial Defense and the Catalan Revolt of 1640-1652, 312 ;The Secession of Portugal, 314; The Resignation of Olivares and the Balance of the Reign of Felipe IV, 1643-1665, 315; Government during the Minority of Carlos II, 1665-1675, 318; Final Triumph of the Aristocracy, 319; The Trough of the Depression: Castile's Disaster Decade, 1677-1687, 321; Recovery in Catalonia, 322; Aragón and Valencia, 323; Government Reform, 1680-1691, 323; The Dynastic Succession, 325; Signs of Regeneration, 326; Spain in Seventeenth-Century Europe, 328)

 Bibliography : Please note that the bibliographical entries for each chapter are located at the end of the text for that particular chapter.


1. Roman theater at Mérida, capital of Roman Lusitania
2. Roman aqueduct at Segovia
3. Palace of Ramiro I on Monte Naranco above Oviedo
4. Late medieval painting of Alfonso III el Magno of Asturias
5. Interior of the Great Mosque at Córdoba
6. Alfonso X el Sabio of Castile
7. Scenes of medieval Spanish peasant life
8, Cathedral of Burgos
9. Castle of La Mota (Medina del Campo)
10. Castle of Belmonte (Cuenca)
11. The Alcázar of Segovia
12. Auto de Fe Presided Over by Sto. Domingo de Guzmán, by Pedro Berruguete (El Prado)
13. Cardinal Cisneros
14. Fernando and Isabel, the Catholic Kings
15. Carlos V
16. Title page of Pedro de Medina's Regimiento de Navegación
17. Sixteenth-century galleons
18. Felipe II, by Sánchez Coello (El Prado)
19. Felipe IV
20. Carlos II, by Juan Carrefío de Miranda (Hispanic Society, New York)
21. The Infante D. Henrique. Detail of the polyptic by Nuno Gonsalves
22. Vasco da Gama. Portrait in the collection of the Sociedade da Geografía
23. Afonso de Albuquerque, Viceroy of the Indies
24. Royal cloister in the great monastery at Batalha, in Manueline style
25. Manueline exterior of the Mosteiro dos Jerónimos, Lisbon
26. Sebastiâo


A physiographic map of the Iberian Peninsula
Approximate stages of the Hispanic reconquest
Catalan-Aragonese expansion in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries
The Portuguese reconquest
Domains of Alfonso el Magnánimo ca. 1455
Hispano-Portuguese expansion in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries
The European empire of Carlos V


1.  Periodicity of the Castilian Cortes, 1252-1520, p. 152
2.  Number of nobles in the royal household, Afonso V to Joâo III, p. 226
3. Periodicity of the Portuguese Cortes, 1383-1557, p. 227
4. Social composition of the Spanish population at the beginning of the sixteenth century, p. 269
5. Size of Castilian Mesta herds, 1556-1700, p.  279
6. Annual averages of the trade with Spanish America in the seventeenth century, p. 296
7. Creation of new titles in Spain, 1556-1700, p. 298

 Genealogical Charts and Lists of Rulers :

Rulers of Al-Andalus
Rulers of Asturias-León
The Sánchez dynasty of Castile, Aragón, and Navarre, 1000-1284
Rulers of the Crown of Aragón, 1137-1410
Rulers of Portugal The House of Castile, 1252-1504
The Spanish Habsburg dynasty, 1516-1700

 NOTE: Material from this volume may be cited by URL or with the pagination of the 1973 University of Wisconsin Press print edition. These have been inserted into the text in boldface, set off in brackets, as in [29].