The Worlds of Alfonso the Learned
and James the Conqueror
Robert I. Burns, S.J., ed.

Chronology Chart: The Thirteenth Century
1208 James I born at Montpellier 1202-4 Constantinople falls to Fourth Crusade
1212 Las Navas battle cripples Almohad Spain 
1213 Muret battle: Peter the Catholic killed 
1217 St. Fernando III, Alfonso's father, begins rule; James begins actual rule
1209-29 Main Albigensian Crusade 
1210 University of Paris charter 
1212 Children's Crusade; Rheims cathedral begins 
1214 Bouvines battle 
1215 England's Magna Carta; Ghengis Khan in Peking; Fourth Lateran Council 
1216 Innocent III dies
1220 James marries Leonor of Castile, aunt of Fernando III 
1221 Alfonso X the Learned born at Toledo 
1225 James fails to conquer Islamic Peñiscola 
1227 James triumphs over barons: Alcala Peace 
1229 James invades, conquers Majorca (Minorca tributary 1232, Ibiza 1235) 
1220 Frederick II Hohenstaufen crowned emperor 
1221 St. Dominic dies 
1223 Philip Augustus of France dies 
1225 Thomas Aquinas born 1225-28; Frederick II wars with Lombard towns 
1226 St. Francis of Assisi dies; Louis VIII invades Provence, sieges Toulouse, dies 
1227-29 Fifth Crusade 
1230 Alfonso IX of Leon dies;  definitive union with Castile 
1232 James begins Valencian Crusade; Ramon Llull born 
1234 Navarre to French dynasty; Ramon de Penyafort begins Decretals of Gregory IX 
1236 Fernando III conquers Islamic Cordova 
1238 Valencia city falls to James 
1239 Navarre Crusade to Holy Land 
1233 Origins of medieval Inquisition 
1237-41 Mongols invade Europe 
1239-50 Frederick II vs. papacy 
1240 James's son Peter the Great born 
1241-44 Alfonso takes Islamic Murcia 
1244 Alfonso marries Violante, James's daughter ; Almizra treaty between Alfonso and James; Islamic Játiva falls to James 
1245 Biar falls: end of Valencian Crusade 
1246 Islamic Jaén falls to Castilians 
1248 Islamic Seville falls to Castilians; al-Azraq revolt in Valencia
1240 Painter Cimabue born 
1240,1241 Alexander Nevsky's victories over Swedes and Teutonic Knights 
1242-43 Henry III of England invades Occitania (southern "France") 
1244 Jerusalem finally lost for Europe 
1245 First ecumenical Council of Lyons 
1246 Charles of Anjou marries heiress of Provence 


1251 Calila e Digna, Alfonso's translation from Arabic fiction Kalila wa-Dimna 
1252 Fernando III dies, as he plans African invasion ;Alfonso X the Learned begins rule; Sancho born to Alfonso 
1253 Alfonso's war with Portugal 
1254 Alfonso founds Latin-Arabic university at Seville 
1255 Fuero real published 
1255-59 Baronial revolt against Alfonso 
1255(-60?) Alfonso's Especulo redacted 
1257 Alfonso elected Holy Roman Emperor, attempts to validate claim until 1275 
1258 Corbeil treaty with France surrenders James's claim on Occitania (southern "France") ; Second al-Azraq war in Valencia 
1250 Frederick II dies;Sixth Crusade: Louis IX fails in Egypt and is captured 
1253 Grosseteste dies 
1254 Sorbonne founded 
1256 Venice vs. Genoa "Hundred years' war" 
1256-73 Great Interregnum in Empire 
1258 Mongols destroy Abbassid Caliphate 
1259 Sculptor Nicola Pisano finishes Pisa pulpit 
1261 Valencian Furs code revised, confirmed 
1262 Astronomy researches at Toledo, for Alfonso; Prince Peter of Aragon marries Hohenstaufen heiress Costanza 
1263-65 Muslim revolts in Andalusia, Murcia, Valencia 
1265 Islamic Cádiz falls 
1266 Granada an Islamic tributary of Castile; James helps Alfonso reconquer Murcia 
1269 James's abortive Crusade to the Holy Land; Baronial revolt in Castile 
1260 Mamluks stop Mongols: battle of Goliath Springs; Meister Eckhart, mystic, born; Chartres cathedral consecrated 
1260-94 Kublai Khan rules Mongols 
1261 Genoese power entrenches on Black Sea and in Constantinople 
1261-73 Aquinas's Summa theologica 
1261-80 Michael Paleologos rules restored Byzantium 
1262, 1268 Battles of Benevento and Tagliacozzo seal Hohenstaufen fate, give Charles of Anjou victory in Italy 
1264 Vincent of Beauvais dies 
1265 Dante born 
1270 Alfonso's Crinica general begins 
1272 Baronial revolt in Castile 
1274 James's triumph at second ecumenical Council of Lyons 
1275 James's barons revolt; Ramon de Penyafort dies; Alfonso's heir Fernando dies; Alfonso surrenders claim to be Holy Roman Emperor 
1276 Alfonso's Ordenamiento de las tafurerías; Invasion of Castile by Morocco; Muslim revolt in Valencia; French invasion of Castile; James dies on Valencian ontier 
1279 Alfonso's Cantisas de Santa
1270 St. Louis IX dies on Tunis (Seventh) Crusade 
1274 Thomas Aquinas dies; Second ecumenical Council of Lyons 
1275 Marco Polo in China 
1276 Giotto born
1280 Alfonso's General estoria 
1281 Castilian civil war 
1282 Alfonso deposed, Sancho IV rules 
1282-1302 Peter of Aragon invades, takes Sicily in War of the Vespers 
1283 Alfonso's Libra de ajedrez 
1284 Alfonso the Learned dies at Seville 
1285 French Crusade invades realms of Aragon ; Philip IV Fair comes to French throne ; Peter of Aragon dies 
1284 Meloria battle: Venice breaks the power of Pisa 
1289 Block printing, Ravenna
1291 Alfonso III of Aragon dies 
1291-1327 James II of Aragon 
1295 Alfonso X's son and successor Sancho IV dies 
1290 England expels Jews 
1291 Acre falls: last of Crusader Holy Land; Genoese Vivaldi brothers try to sail around Africa to India 
1294 Roger Bacon dies 
1295 England conquers Scotland; Model Parliament 
1298 Marco Polo to Genoa prison, writes memoirs